Chromatography is a laboratory technique employed for the separation and analysis of mixtures composed of different compounds, often used in chemistry, biochemistry, and related fields. It is based on the principle that different components in a mixture have varying affinities for a stationary phase (a solid or liquid medium) and a mobile phase (a liquid or gas), causing them to move through a medium at different rates. This separation process is primarily driven by differences in the distribution of a compound between these two phases.